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Rose hip

The dog rose bush or wild briar rose (rosa canina) belongs to the rose family, and is a wild rose plant commonly growing in the nature. We know the plant cultivated from the dog rose bush as the decorative rose plant. The fruits (rose hips) and leaves of the dog rose bush have been well known in folk medicine for almost 2000 years (Heinemann W 1962, Strehlow W and Herzka G 1988).

 

Regarding healing properties, rose hips have been linked to having antiinflammatory, antioxydant, antimicrobial and anti-arthritis properties. It is also recommended for people with diabetes and for protecting the cardiovascular system. (Mármol I et al 2017). Over 129 chemical compunds have been found from the rose hip fruit (Ayati Z 2018). Many of those are linked to alleviating different diseases and ailments.

Studies have shown that the healing properties of rose hips are caused by flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins and fatty acids (Shameh S et al 2019, Winther K et al 2016).

Clinical research regarding II type diabetes have shown that consuming water extract from the fruits of the dog rose (rosa canina) has lead to blood sugar decrease and blood cholesterol normalisation (Dabaghian HF 2015). A similar effect has been identified also on diabetes patients when consuming a combination of other herbal extracts, one of the components being rose hip (Mehrzadi S et al 2020). This effect is associated with the oligosaccharides in rose hips (Rahimi M, 2020).

Halvorsen et al. (2002) researched the antiocydant properties of over 40 different agricultural crops, garden crops and wild berries. Rose hips had the biggest concentration of antioxydants. Antixydant properties are particularly associated with fenols and flavonoids contained in rose hips (Jemaa HB et al 2017).

Rose hips are known to have one of the highest vitamin C contrentrations (300-4000 mg/100 g) (Ercisli S, 2007). Vitamin C concentration varies depending on the species. The cinnamon rose (rosa cinnamomea) has been noted having one of the highest concentrations of vitamin C.

The galactolipids in rose hips are attracting a lot of attention and interest lately. They are the compounds belonging to the glycolipid group which have higher bio value than fatty acids. They are responsible for the anti-arthritis properties in rose hips. Research on arthritis patients have shown significant pain reduction effects after consuming rose hip powder (Cohen M 2012).

References

Ayati Z, Amiri MS, Ramezani M, Delshad E, Sahebkar A, Emami SA Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Pharmacological Profile of Rose Hip: A Review. Curr Pharm Des. 2018;24(35):4101-4124.

Cohen M. Rosehip – an evidence based herbal medicine for inflammation and arthritis. Aust Fam Physician. 2012 Jul;41(7):495-8.

Dabaghian HF, Abdollahifard M, Khalighi Sigarudi F, Taghavi Shirazi M, Shojaee A, Sabet Z, et al. Effects of Rosa canina L. fruit on glycemia and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Med Plant. 2015;14(55):95-104.

Ercisli, S. Chemical composition of fruits in some rose (Rosa spp.) species. Fod chemistry. 2007, 104 (4):1379-1384.

Halvorsen B.L., Holte K, Myhrstad MCW, Barikmo I, Hvattum E, Remberg SF, Wold A.-B, Haffner K, Baugerød H, Frost Andersen L, Moskaug J Ø, Jacobs DR, Blomhof Jr R A Systematic Screening of Total Antioxidants in Dietary Plants. The Journal of Nutrition, 2002, 132 (3), 461–471.

Heinemann W. The ilder Pliny. In: Natural History VII: Books XXIV-XXVII Pearson, 1962: 149.

Jemaa HB, Jemia AB, Khlifi S, Ahmed HB, Slama FB, Benzarti A, Elati J, Aouidet A. Antioxidant activity and a-amylase inhibitory potential of rosa canina L. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2017 Jan 13;14(2):1-8.

Mármol I, Sánchez-de-Diego C, Jiménez-Moreno N, Ancín-Azpilicueta C, Rodríguez-Yold M.J. Therapeutic Applications of Rose Hips from Different Rosa Species. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1137.

Mehrzadi S, Mirzaei R, Heydari M, Sasani M, Yaqoobvand B, Huseini HF. Efficacy and Safety of a Traditional Herbal Combination in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Diet Suppl. 2020 Feb 21:1-13.

Rahimi M, Sajadimajd S, Mahdian Z, Hemmati M, Malekkhatabi P, Bahrami G, Mohammadi B, Miraghaee S, Hatami R, Mansouri K, Moahammadi Motlagh HR, Keshavarzi S, Derakhshankhah H Characterization and anti-diabetic effects of the oligosaccharide fraction isolated from Rosa canina in STZ-Induced diabetic rats. Carbohydr Res. 2020 Mar; 489.

Shameh S, Alirezalu A, Hosseini B, Maleki R.J Fruit phytochemical composition and color parameters of 21 accessions of five Rosa species grown in North West Iran. Sci Food Agric. 2019 Oct;99 (13):5740-5751.

Strehlow W, Herzka G. Hildegard of Bingen’s Medicine. Rochester, VT: Bear and Company; 1988:63.

Winther, K., Vinther Hansen, A.S., Campbell-Tofte, J. Bioactive ingredients of rose hips (Rosa canina L.) with special reference to antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties: in vitro studies. Botanics: Targets and Therapy, 2016, 6: 11—23.